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Demographic Concepts

The current world population is around 7.8 billion. The People’s Republic of China, is the most populous country in the world today with 1.4 billion people. India, the next largest country, has around 100 million fewer people, for a population of 1.3 billion in 2017. The United States, the third largest country in the world, has a much smaller population of 327 million in 2018. Estimates show that India will surpass China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. The population of the EU-28 countries was 514 million in 2018. Germany with 83 million people in 2019 is the most populous country in EU. Top 10 countries in terms of absolute population are -China – India – USA – Indonesia – Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Japan.


Click O click Class Work:

Click here to review the timeline history of world population growth over time

Click here to view live demographic parameters on Worldometer

See countries with the highest population growth in 2020 

World’s most sparsely populated regions 

The ranking of the countries by population density in 2019 (World Population Review)


Important terminologies in Demography

Demography – is the study of population

Population density – population per unit of land area; that is the number of people per square mile or people per square kilometer

 Birth rate – the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Death rate – is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Rate of natural change – the difference between birthrate and death rate.

Gender ratio – the number of males per 100 females in a population

Infant Mortality Rate – the number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year.

Urbanization – is the growth in the proportion of a population living in urban areas.


Migration and related terminologies:

Migration – the movement of people involving a change of residence. It can be internal displacement or international, voluntary or forced. It is usually for an extended period of time (more than a year) and does not include temporary circulation such as commuting or tourism.

Emigration – the process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence in another.

Brain drain – the emigration of a significant proportion of a country’s highly skilled, highly educated professional population, usually to other countries offering better economic and social opportunity.

Remittances – transfer of money or goods by foreign workers to their home country.

Refugee – a person fleeing their home country in order to escape danger.

Asylum seekers – people who seek refugee status in another country

Megacities of the world

Read World Population Review report on the ranking of the Megacities of the world in 2019

As of 2019, there are 47 megacities in the world, of which three have over 30 million residents: Tokyo, Shanghai, and Jakarta. The largest megacities in each continent are Tokyo in Asia, New York in North America, São Paulo in South America, Lagos in Africa, and Moscow in Europe. Click here to see the most populated Mega cities in China


Future Megacities by 2100

Class Work

Mark on the given map, the distribution of the megacities in the world based on Statista Data

Enter the data in an Excel sheet and compare the growth by preparing line graph

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