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Demographic Concepts

The current world population is around 7.9 billion. The People’s Republic of China, is the most populous country in the world today with 1.4 billion people. India, the next largest country, has around 100 million fewer people, for a population of 1.3 billion in 2017. The United States, the third largest country in the world, has a much smaller population of 327 million in 2018. Estimates show that India will surpass China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. The population of the EU-28 countries was 514 million in 2018. Germany with 83 million people in 2019 is the most populous country in EU. Top 10 countries in terms of absolute population are -China – India – USA – Indonesia – Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia, Japan.



Important terminologies in Demography

Demography – is the study of population

Population density – population per unit of land area; that is the number of people per square mile or people per square kilometer

Birth rate – the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Death rate – is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Rate of natural change – the difference between birthrate and death rate.

Gender ratio – the number of males per 100 females in a population

Infant Mortality Rate – the number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year.

Urbanization – is the growth in the proportion of a population living in urban areas.


Migration and related terminologies:

Migration – the movement of people involving a change of residence. It can be internal displacement or international, voluntary or forced. It is usually for an extended period of time (more than a year) and does not include temporary circulation such as commuting or tourism.

Emigration – the process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence in another.

Brain drain – the emigration of a significant proportion of a country’s highly skilled, highly educated professional population, usually to other countries offering better economic and social opportunity.

Remittances – transfer of money or goods by foreign workers to their home country.

Refugee – a person fleeing their home country in order to escape danger.

Asylum seekers – people who seek refugee status in another country

Biggest mega cities of the world by 2050

Read World Population Review report on the ranking of the Megacities of the world in 2019

As of 2019, there are 47 megacities in the world, of which three have over 30 million residents: Tokyo, Shanghai, and Jakarta. The largest megacities in each continent are Tokyo in Asia, New York in North America, São Paulo in South America, Lagos in Africa, and Moscow in Europe. Click here to see the most populated Mega cities in China


Future Megacities by 2100

Class Work

Mark on the given map, the distribution of the megacities in the world based on Statista Data

Enter the data in an Excel sheet and compare the growth by preparing line graph

Demographic Concepts Global pattern/uneven distributionDiagram/map/Photos
Population Density
(Population per unit of land area; for example the number of people per people per square kilometer.)
Many of the world’s small islands (dependent territories) or small states such as Macao, Monaco, Singapore, Hong Kong and Gibraltar are the five most densely populated places on this planet. Singapore has nearly 8,000 people per sq. km, more than 200 times as dense as the US, and 2000 times that of Australia. Of the larger countries, Bangladesh is the most densely populated with more than 1,250 people per square kilometer followed by Lebanon, South Korea, the Netherlands and Rwanda. All of these countries have more than 500 people per sq. km. On the other hand, Greenland is the least dense, with less than 1 people per square km, followed by Mongolia, Namibia, Australia and Iceland.
Uneven population distribution within a country: Example of ChinaChina exhibits extremely uneven population distribution. Most of China's population is located
in the south-eastern part of the country, the most densely populated area is along the the south east
coast. The northwestern provinces are sparsely populated with only 6% percent of the population, while the other 94% of the population is concentrated along the southeastern coast.

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