|Risk||Risk is a situation involving exposure to danger of any aspect. It is a real or perceived threat against any aspect of life.|
|Resilience||It denotes the ability to recover quickly from difficulties and bounce back to normal state.|
|Cybersecurity||Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting electronic data, systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks and unauthorized assess. Cyberattacks are usually aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information; extorting money from users; or interrupting normal business processes, know as cybercrime.||Read five easy steps to stop hackers|
|Different types of cyber attacks (risk to ICT)|
|It simply refers to gaining of unauthorized access to data in a system or computer. This is done through cracking of passwords and codes which gives access to the systems. Cracking is the term which specifies the method by which the password or code is obtained (password cracking algorithms programs). The person who undertakes hacking is known as the hacker.||Common hacking techniques include:
Denial of service (DoS)
Trojans and other Viruses
(Refer to the schematic for more information)
|Phishing||It is a type of hacking. Phishing attacks are the practice of sending fraudulent communications that appear to come from a reputable source. It is usually done through email. The goal is to steal sensitive data like credit card and login information, or to install malware or hacking software on the victim’s machine.||Click here to read how to tackle phishing
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
|It is a security mechanisms and a protocol by which corporate networks connect to offsite and remote locations by using encrypted data and tunneling protocols. VPN allow the users to securely access a network from different locations via a public telecommunications network, most frequently the Internet.|
securely cover the transmitting and receiving IP addresses thereby preventing hackers from making unauthorized encroachment. Furthermore, data transmission over this tunnel is subjected to a very high level of encryption thereby preventing leakage.
|The key VPN advantage is that it is less expensive than a private wide area network (WAN). In a remote-access VPN, an organization uses an outside enterprise service provider (ESP) to establish a network access server (NAS). Remote users then receive VPN desktop software and connect to the NAS via a toll-free number, which accesses the organization's network (source: techopedia)|
Difference Between Viruses and Malware
Worst Computer Viruses
Important Case Studies from Unit 6
Disruptive Technology : Drone
Cyber crime resilience : Role of VPN and Electronic passport
Case study of Trans-boundary pollution – Gulf Oil spill (2010) and Chernobyl nuclear disaster
Case of profit repatriation by one TNC
One geopolitical conflict and it’s global impact – Middle East tension and Syrian Crisis
The largest marine oil spill in history so far, caused by an explosion on the the deepwater horizon oil rig on April 20, 2010 in Gulf of Mexico, generated catastrophic disaster. Click here to Read National Geographic report on the BP oil spill and it’s impacts.
Plastics are not biodegradable and often contain additives making them stronger, more flexible, and durable. Plastic litter may take at least 400 years to break down. 1 million plastic bottles are sold per minute in the world. China produces largest absolute amount of plastic and plastic wastes per year. However, Ireland is the biggest producer of plastic wastes per person. Read more about the scale and severity of the plastic pollution from National Geographic coverage, click here. Write a short note on the local impacts of the marine plastic pollution.
New and emerging threats to the political and economic sovereignty of states
What is sovereignty? The absolute, supreme and ultimate dominion or authority of a political state expressed within its territory without the existence of any other higher power. It denotes supreme authority within a territory. Symbolically, the state is the political institution in which sovereignty is embodied. The state has the power of full self-governance in complete freedom from outside government or influence.
The world is increasingly connected by global processes.Everyday experience suggests that globalization is inescapable and taken for granted. Today, we hardly consider it remarkable that our clothes are made in China or in Bangladesh, that fruits and vegetables are flown in from Kenya or Malaysia. We take it for granted that the world is globalized. Globalization has also increased cooperation and connectivity among states and civil societies. Numerous global governance structures are dedicated to ensuring that states do not fail. In worst instances, when states are unable to provide even minimum public services, rich states provide aid. Such helps may not increase long term viability of a state but prevent anarchy and breakdown of order. In the present world, the legitimate form of political state is democratic, progress oriented and inclusive state. It is now a global obligation to help the poor states. The emergence of a progessive global community can not be a threat to the sovereign autonomy of a state rather mutually enhancing. Express your opinion after reviewing the following slides.
Profit Repatriation using tax haven: Threats to economic sovereignty of states
Apple factory in China: Re-shoring evaluated
Apple Inc. will bring hundreds of billions of overseas dollars back to the U.S., pay about $38 billion in taxes on the money and invest tens of billions on domestic jobs, manufacturing and data centers in the coming years. Read Fortune article on re-shoring of apple.