Water is one of the most unique molecule known to man
We are comprised of mostly water
- Water is the most essential and pivotal resource. It is the largest single component of the human body, and is essential for life. The longest a person can survive with out water and food is about 8-10 days.
- The Stockholm International water Institute has estimated that each person on earth needs a minimum of 1000 m3 of water per year for drinking, hygiene and growing food for sustenance. Whether this water is available depends on where people live on the planet as water supply is extremely inequitable.
- Water scarcity affects every continent. For about 40% of the world population, lack of water is a constant threat. By 2025, almost half of the would population (around 4 billion people) will live under condition of severe water threat specially in Africa, Middle East and south Asia. UN estimates states that by 2025 around 1800 million people will be living in the countries or regions with absolute water scarcity and around two-thirds of the world population would be around stress condition.
- The situation is getting worse as the demand for water is doubling in every 20 years. In 20th century, global water consumption grew 6 fold.
- Colorado river is running dry and no more reaches the sea. Most of its water has been diverted to irrigated agriculture, so that in a normal year, no water at all reaches the river’s mouth.
- Yemen and Jordon are withdrawing 30% more from ground water resources than is being annually replenished. In Africa around 200 million people at present live in severe water stressed situation
- Half of the world’s wetlands have disappeared in the last 30 years. 20% of the fresh water species are engendered or extinct. Many important aquifers are seriously depleted. water table in many parts of the world are dropping at an alarming rate. Ground water recharge is a slow process, drained faster can not be replenished.
- The quantity of water used today for all purpose exceeds 4700 cubic kilometers per year. Agriculture is the largest user, consuming two-thirds of all water drawn from rivers, lakes and groundwater. Since 1960, water use for crop irrigation has risen by 60-70%. Industry uses about 20% available water and municipal sector (domestic use) uses about 10%
Task: Article review and note down 5 major points
|Natural Capital||Those goods and services that are not manufactured but have values to human, e.g. Soil, water, trees, living organisms etc.|
|Non-renewable energy||Exist in finite amount and are not renewed after they have been depleted, e.g. fossil fuels. These are forms of stored solar energy produced by photosysthesis (coal) and remains of organic life from millions of years ago, now being extracted and burned by humans.|
|Renewable energy||Can be used over and over again and are considered to be sustainable, e.g. Solar, wind, geothermal energy etc.|
|Replenishable resources||Are middle ground between renewable and non-renewable resources. They tend to be replaced over a long period of time. If the depletion rate is larger than recharge rate, the natural capital is depleted. E.g. Fuel wood.|
|Energy security||When all people in a society/country enjoy the uninterrupted supply of energy they require to meet their needs at an affordable price.|